Tag Archives: Ama H.Vanniarachchy

A forgotten gateway, Lost in time…

As I enter an unknown world, long forgotten…

No one remembers the name of this land, once glorious, but now in ruins…

I touch the ruins, and feel the heartbeat of a dying civilization,

The air whispers songs of fallen heroes.

I walk through the ruins, as the path beckons me…

Anuradhapura (790) copy

 

 

 

 

 

 

© සියලූම හිමිකම් ඇවිරිණි. කතෘගේ ලිඛිත අවසරය නොමැතිව මෙහි සඳහන් කිසිවක් හෝ උපුටා ගැනීම,ගබඩා කර තැබීමනැවත ප්රකාශයපලකිරීම සපුරා තහනම්ය.

Copyright © All Rights Reserved. The words, ideas and images are the intellectual property of Ama H. Vanniarachchy. All work published (words and images) here is copyrighted. If you wish to reproduce the work published here, please inform the writer, to get her written permission and acknowledge this site as the source.

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Trails of a vanishing nation, the Sinhalese.

The Sinhalese are the first to inhabit the fertile lands of Lanka. Archaeological evidences comes in great aid when researching the earliest history of Sri Lanka and this article will present some of the significant archaeological findings to recognize the earliest footsteps of the Sinhalese.

The history of the oldest known human settlement of Sri Lanka dates back to 125,000 years from the present. There is a lacking of literature sources or inscriptional records which belongs to this period. Unfortunately most of the literature sources are mixed up with folklore and mythological tales, covering historical facts, making it difficult to see the truth. The earliest history of the Sinhalese are written as fables which are hard to believe, most of them written with the influence of Hindu mythology. Adding into this mess is countless wrong misinterpretations of the colonial period historians of Sri Lanka during the 19th and 20th centuries. These misinterpretations of the early history of the Sinhalese have been now absorbed by the majority of citizens, as a result of them being printed in school text books. The damage is enormous. Examples of such are the myth of Vijaya being the first Sinhalese king, Sinhalese are decedents of a foreign gangster named Vijaya, who was exiled from his own country, fable of Ravana, non-humans such as Yakshas, Nagas inhabiting the land of Lanka before the arrival of Vijaya etc.

There was an established civilization already existing in Sri Lanka when the Aryan groups started to migrate during the 6th century BC. Aryan migrations occurred far before the 6th century BC. The Sinhalese inhabitants of Sri Lanka had developed an agricultural culture by the 6th century BC. Archaeological evidences proves this. So it is time to give up the idea that ‘Vijaya’ landed with his men and ‘taught’ the Sinhalese about ‘culture’ and ‘civilization’. There are enough evidences to say that Homo sapiens walked on this land since the Palaeolithic period. The Balangoda culture, which is the Microlithic period of Sri Lanka was spread in the Horton plains, Punarin (Northern part of the island), and Mankulam, Miniha gal kanda. There are remains of the Microlithic period found in these sites, which are dated as 28,000 BC to the 9500 BC. Many artefacts have been discovered from Sri Lanka that have identified as belonging to the Palaeolithic period.

Artefacts belonging to the Mesolithic period have been discovered in various locations of Sri Lanka, and they can be dated as belonging to the period of 15000 BC to 10000 BC.

A Megalithic culture (800 BC- 100BC) was spread in almost all over the island. Some of the sites are Pomparippuwa, Guru gal hinna, Kathira weli, Padiyagampola, and the banks of river Walawe. During this period the Sinhalese produced and used iron, red and black ware, established settlements, irrigation and agriculture.

Archaeological evidences in a chronological order
Bundala (Pathiraja wela) – 125,000 years BP human settlements

Pahiyangala (Balangoda) – 31,000 years BP Homo sapiens settlements and human remains (Mesolithic period)

Kuruwita Batadombalena (a cave site) – 28,000 years BP

108 sites identified in Sri Lanka with evidence of a human settlement as old as 500,000 years BP to 5000 years BP.

The oldest known evidence of agriculture in Sri Lanka was found in the Horton plains, which is 20,000 years BP to 15,000 years BP. Evidences of Oats and Barley are found here.
Anuradhapura Salgahawaththa excavations revealed that from the 8th century BC there was an urban civilization in Anuradhapura, with its inhabitants using iron, domestication of horses, paddy cultivation and producing pottery. These are characteristics of early urban civilizations.
It is clear that the earliest inhabitants of Sri Lanka who are the Sinhalese, has a history which is 125,000 years of antiquity. It is a fact that the Aryans migrated from the northern or central Asian plains all over the Asia and then to Sri Lanka too. By the time they arrived, Sri Lanka was a land with a civilized human civilization, it’s inhabitants used to cultivate their own food, who knew agriculture, irrigation methods, produced and used iron and pottery, had their own burial rituals and beliefs of an afterlife, organized burial grounds, domesticated horses, and even produced beautiful bead jewellery. It is baseless to hand over the responsibility of urbanization of Sri Lanka to some foreign migrators by ignoring such clear archaeological evidences. By the time of Aryans migrated, Anuradhapura, the pride of the Sinhalese, had already upgraded into a state of an urban centre.

© සියලූම හිමිකම් ඇවිරිණි. කතෘගේ ලිඛිත අවසරය නොමැතිව මෙහි සඳහන් කිසිවක් හෝ උපුටා ගැනීම, ගබඩා කර තැබීම, නැවත ප්‍රකාශය, පලකිරීම සපුරා තහනම්ය.

Copyright © All Rights Reserved. The words, ideas and images are the intellectual property of Ama H. Vanniarachchy. All work published (words and images) here is copyrighted. If you wish to reproduce the work published here, please inform the writer, to get her written permission and acknowledge this site as the source.

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The Monk and the Tusker

The Monk and the Tusker

(Based on an ancient Buddhist tale)

Retold by Ama H.Vanniarachchy

Long time ago a monk lived alone in a forest. The forest was a beautiful place and to the monk all the animals and plants were his family. A rock cave was his dwelling. Forest berries was his diet. He spent the day meditating and practicing what he has learned.

Humans in the nearby village used to hunt and sometimes capture these animals for their own needs. There lived a she-elephant in the other end of the forest. Every time her baby elephants were captured by humans in the nearby village. She was very sad about this. One day she took her newborn baby elephant and walked to the other end of the forest where the monk lived. She went to the monk and gave her new born baby elephant to him and asked him to protect the baby elephant. The monk who was kind to all living beings, accepted the poor helpless mother’s request and adopted the baby elephant. The mother returned to her home, back to her herd.

From then on, the baby elephant grew with the monk as his son. The monk used to feed him, wash him and even play with him few hours a day. As the monk grew older and elephant grew younger, the elephant took care of the monk as a son would take care of his old father. The elephant used to follow the monk everywhere. If the monk is resting in the cave, the elephant would rest nearby. He would bring fruits to the monk.  Keep the monk on his back and take him to the river and bathe him. The young mighty elephant was like the monk’s shadow.

One day, a hunter lost his way and wandered in the deep forest. Accidently he walked in to the area where the monk lived and he saw the mighty young elephant. He was surprised to see such a magnificent young tusker. He thought to himself, “If I tell the king about this mighty beast, I will be rewarded.” With such evil thoughts he went to the king and told the messengers about the giant beast. Soon the king’s huntsmen entered the forest in search of the giant tusker. They entered the other side of the forest where the monk and tusker lived and set elephant traps all over the forest.

That morning the monk was meditating in his cave and the young tusker set off into the forest to bring breakfast for both of them.  Unknowing the evil intentions of the humans, the young tusker gaily roamed around the forest in search of food. He stepped on a trap and alas, he was caught!  He couldn’t move his legs and the giant creature fell on the floor. He started to cry. His eyes were red with anger and agony. Tears started to roll off his eyes. He couldn’t understand what was happening. He tried his best to break off the ropes but they were hard as iron. It was a sad sight to see. Soon the king’s huntsmen reached there. They threw an arrow at the tusker’s shoulder which was soaked in a tranquilizer. How helpless he was!

Soon the giant creature was taken to the king. He was tied using hard ropes and iron chains. He soon gained conscious and was furious. His eyes searched the monk. He couldn’t see him anywhere. This is not the forest. He could see hundreds of people staring at him and some of them standing around him with spears and arrows pointed towards him. He was angry and started to shout. It was like the thunder. He moved his giant feet, trunk and body. He threw the bucket of water as hard as he can. It splashed and the bucket was in pieces. He took the food from his trunk and threw it up in the air. As he struggled the iron chains and roped hurt his feet and neck.

The king and all his men were wondering how to tame him. They pricked him with spears, threw water over him, shouted harsh loud words and tightened his chains but nothing calmed the Tusker. The king thought he has never seen such a huge elephant till now and such beautiful and long tusks. His voice was like thunder. This one surely is going to be the royal elephant. And he will be the best war elephant. But nothing could tame the tusker.

Meanwhile the monk was wondering where his elephant is. Why is he late? What could have happened to him? The monk left his cave and wandered in the forest in search of the tusker. The monk called out his name. Seeing his huge footsteps the monk followed them and came to the place where the tusker was trapped. The monk realized that his son, the tusker, was in great trouble and he needs help. The monk left the forest and entered the village. He asked the villagers about the tusker. They told him that a magnificent tusker had been captured today by the king. The monk visited the king. On the way he could hear the thunderous cries of the tusker. The monk felt his agony. As soon as he visited there, the tusker became calm. He bent down on his knees in front of the monk and cried. His warm tears washed the dust covering the monk’s feet. The monk placed his palm on the tusker’s forehead. He felt no fear and pain anymore.

The king saw this miracle. The wild beast was tamed by this monk from the forest. The king walked towards the monk and said, “The beast is tamed to you. How hard we tired, my men who are experts, couldn’t tame the beast. How did you do that?”

The monk replied, “This tusker whom you call as the beast, is my son. He lives with me in the forest. He is my family. Even animals feel love and compassion. They respond to kind words. And I must request you to release him back to where he belongs. He doesn’t belong here. The wild belongs to the wild. Besides, staying here will not make him happy he will remain stubborn and wild. And if you separate him from me, he will not be able to bear the separation. I am his family.”

“Dear monk, I want him to be the court tusker, he will be the pride of the kingdom. And he will make an excellent war elephant.”

“My dear king, these animals too have feelings. They feel fear, pain and sorrow. When they are separated from their loved once, from their homes they feel fear and sorrow. They miss their families, just as you and I do oh king. They too must be loved and cared, and treated with kind worlds. Just as you and I fear harsh words and physical punishment, these animals fear harsh words and physical punishment too. Dear king, please be kind to every living being, no matter what the size they are. Animals are not ours to use as we want to and they have all the rights to live a fear free life just as we do. We are just another part of Mother Nature and we all are one family. Do no harm to animals and plants, because every life is precious.  Talking about this tusker, he will not survive if you separate him from his home and family. I want you to release him back to where he belongs. He grew up with me since he was a baby elephant. His mother requested me to take care of her newborn baby elephant because all of his babies were captured by humans. It is my duty to protect him and I will stand by him no matter what you do oh great king.”

The king was moved by the monk’s words and he ordered to free the tusker.

Happy and free, the giant tusker gently followed the monk back to his home, the forest.

© සියලූම හිමිකම් ඇවිරිණි. කතෘගේ ලිඛිත අවසරය නොමැතිව මෙහි සඳහන් කිසිවක් හෝ උපුටා ගැනීම, ගබඩා කර තැබීම, නැවත ප්‍රකාශය, පලකිරීම සපුරා තහනම්ය.

Copyright © All Rights Reserved. The words, ideas and images are the intellectual property of Ama H. Vanniarachchy. All work published (words and images) here is copyrighted. If you wish to reproduce the work published here, please inform the writer, to get her written permission and acknowledge this site as the source.

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The Clouds and the Little Maid

The Clouds and the Little Maid

(Based on an ancient Asian folklore)

Retold by Ama H.Vanniarachchy2d965dce-0870-4cf4-b636-6da520fbe507 copy copy

Long time ago…yes, many thousand years ago, the world was a different place from today. The sky was so close that fluffy, white clouds floated just next to us. They covered the roofs of our houses and the top of tall trees.

Ambili mama who lives in the moon, with his pet rabbit, would give curd and treacle for children. He loved children, and children would play with his long silvery beard.

The majestic sun god was not as warm as it is today. He was like a gigantic bright warm lamp, hanging up in the sky.

People used stars as lamps to lighten up their houses. Children loved to play with tiny twinkling stars.

There was a poor little servant girl who was tired doing heavy chores. She was always tired and hungry.

One day, she was cleaning the garden with an ekel broom when friendly clouds came to play with her. The tired little girl was angry at the clouds; she threw the ekel broom at the clouds and the sky.

Clouds were sad.   The sky was sad too, that the sky distance itself from us, moving so high that we cannot touch it.

The ekel broom hit the sky so hard, the sun was thrown away and hit the end of the universe. Do you know what happened when the sun hit the end of the universe? The sun caught on fire, and it is still burning.

Ambili mama’s pet rabbit hid behind the mountains on the moon. He would come out only when its nights so we merely see his giant shadow.

The sad sky, clouds, moon, sun and the stars, they all went far far away from us!!!

© සියලූම හිමිකම් ඇවිරිණි. කතෘගේ ලිඛිත අවසරය නොමැතිව මෙහි සඳහන් කිසිවක් හෝ උපුටා ගැනීම, ගබඩා කර තැබීම, නැවත ප්‍රකාශය, පලකිරීම සපුරා තහනම්ය. කතෘගේ ලිඛිත අවසරය නොමැතිව උපුටා ගැනීම බුද්ධිම දේපළ පනත යටතේ දඬුවම් ලැබිය හැකි වරදකි.

Copyright © All Rights Reserved. The words, ideas and images are the intellectual property of Ama H. Vanniarachchy. All work published (words and images) here is copyrighted.If you wish to reproduce the work published here, please inform the writer, to get her written permission and acknowledge this site as the source.

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Kotte : Living Among Ruins

Kotte is an ancient city with a heritage older than five centuries. Among the busy streets and tall buildings hidden is a legacy of forgotten heroes and glorious victories of a nation.

Kotte was once the capital of Sri Lanka, a fortress built by Alakeshwara, the warrior. It was a fortress with high security built using latest available technology and fortress building methods. It had strong  ramparts, gates, moats, warehouses, secret pathways and a well-organized complex of tunnels, spy services, armours and barracks, garrisons, gigantic tuskers and elephants, horses, chariot and cavalry  and an army who guarded the city day and night. Inside the city, paved paths were beautified with plants, trees and ponds. Resting places were built besides the roads. The royal palace and the temple of the tooth relic was the pride of the city.

This once glorious city is now in ruins and almost hidden beneath the modern town of Kotte among busy streets, cramped buildings and the buzz of a busy town life.

I am fortunate to be born and live among a city with such a glorious past. I grew up listening to stories of the great warrior, Veediya bandara and Prince Sapumal. I could hear the whispers of Kotte’s forgotten heroes. As a child I wondered where could have been the tunnels explained in old books, where was the beautiful royal palace and those beautiful paths, those ponds with goldfish in them. Where did they all vanish? Why did Kotte die with time, and fade away from our memories? Driven by the love I had for Kotte, I started my first research on Kotte’s lost heritage at university as a scholar in Archaeology.

Today I am pleased to be a part of Kotte Heritage Foundation (KHF) where we take action towards its protection and conservation.

Not only as citizens but also as scholars of archaeology and history I believe it is our utmost duty and responsibility to protect this heritage from further destruction. We, Kotte Heritage Foundation (KHF) is to save this once glorious city with the involvement of the public.

Please join hands with us and be a proud citizen of Kotte’s living heritage.

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මිනිසාගේ ආත්මාර්ථකාමිත්වය. Selfishness of humans.

මිනිසා භූමිය බෙදා වෙන් කරගෙන සිටින ආකාරය දුටු විට මට සිතුණේ පුළුවන්නම් මිනිසා අහසත් මුදලට ගෙන කොටස් කර ගෙන තාප්ප, වැට මායිම් යොදා වෙන්කර ගනු ඇතැයි කියාය. එසේ කරගෙන අහසේ සැරිසරන සතුන්ට ඒ සඳහා ඇති නිදහසද සීමා කරනු ඇත. මිනිසාගේ ආත්මාර්ථකාමිත්වය , අනුකම්පාවිරහිතබව , නොනිමි ආශාවන් සහ මුග්ධත්වය සිමාව ඉක්මවා යමින් පවතින  අතර, සොබා දහම පරයා නැගී සිටීමේ බරපතල වැරැද්ද නිසාම මිනිසා විනාශය කරා සිඝ්‍රයෙන් ළං වන්නේය. මිනිසාගේ ආත්මාර්ථකාමිත්වය , අනුකම්පාවිරහිතබව සහ මුග්ධබව  වර්තමානය තරම් ඉහළට ගොස් තිබුණු කිසිඳු යුගයක්  අප දැනට ජිවත් වන මානව  ශිෂ්ටාචාරයේ ඉතිහාසයෙන් සොයා ගත නොහැකි  තරම්ය.

As humans have owned the entire earth to fulfill their selfish and endless desires, if possible, humans will ‘buy’ the sky, mark their ownership on the sky and even will restrict the freedom of living beings on the skies. The selfishness, ruthlessness and ignorance of humans, have reached it’s highest as it has never been before in the entire human history. Driven by their selfishness, ruthlessness and ignorance, humans are committing the grave mistake of destroying nature and provoking Mother Nature. We have never seen a period of human ignorance and ruthlessness as high as it is today, in the known history of human civilization.

© සියලූම හිමිකම් ඇවිරිණි. කතෘගේ ලිඛිත අවසරය නොමැතිව මෙහි සඳහන් කිසිවක් හෝ උපුටා ගැනීම, ගබඩා කර තැබීම, නැවත ප්‍රකාශය, පලකිරීම සපුරා තහනම්ය.

Copyright © All Rights Reserved. The words, ideas and images are the intellectual property of Ama H. Vanniarachchy. All work published (words and images) here is copyrighted. If you wish to reproduce the work published here, please inform the writer, to get her written permission and acknowledge this site as the source.

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ආදීම සිංහලයන්ගේ පිය සටහන් සොයා…

ලක්දිව මුල්ම ජනාවස පිහිටුවනු ලබන්නේ සිංහලයන්ය. සිංහලයන්ගේ ආදිතමයන්ගේ පිය සටහන් සොයා යන ගමනේදී අපට පිටිවහලක් වන විවධ මුලාශ්‍රයන් අතරින් පුරා විද්‍යා මුලාශ්‍ර ප්‍රධාන තැනක් ගනී. මෙම ලිපියෙන් පිළිගත හැකි ප්‍රධාන පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක සාධක කිහිපයක් ගැන පමණක් සාකච්ඡා කෙරේ.

දැනට ලැබෙන පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක සාධක අනුව අදින් වසර එක් ලක්ෂ විසිපන්දාහක් තරම් ඈතකට මෙරට ජනාවාසකරණ ඉතිහාසය දිව යන්නේය. මෙම යුගය  පිළිබඳව හැදෑරීමේදී අප මුහුණ දෙන ප‍්‍රධාන ගැටළුවක් වන්නේ සාහිත්‍යය මුලාශ‍්‍ර හිඟ කමත්, පසු කාලීන සාහිත්‍ය මුලාශ‍්‍ර වැරදි තොරතුරු වාර්තා කිරීමත්, 19 සහ 20 යන සියවස් වල පර්යේෂකයන් බොහෝ සෙයින් වැරදි මිත්‍යාවන්  සිංහලයේ ආරම්භය පිළිබඳව පැතිරිමත්ය. උදාහරණ  ලෙස, ආර්යයන් ජනාවාස පිහිටුවීම, විජය මිත්‍යාව , රාවණ මිත්‍යාව, විජයට පෙර මෙරට යක්ෂ, නාග වැනි අමනුෂ්‍යයන් සිටීම ආදිය සැලකිය හැක.

ඉන්දු – යුරෝපීය ප‍්‍රාකෘත බසක් කතා කරන ක‍්‍රි.පූ.6 වැනි සියවසේ සිට පසුවට මෙරටට සංක‍්‍රමණය වූ ආර්ය ජන කොටස් එන විටත් ලක්දිව නිජ බිම කරගත් සිංහලයන් වසර දහස් ගණනක්  පරිණත ශිෂ්ටාචාරයක් ලක්දිව පුරා ගොඩනංවා තිබුණි.
විජය සහ පිරිස මෙරටට පැමිණි මුල් මනුෂ්‍ය සමූහය ලෙස දැක්වීම අපහසුය. පුරා ශිලා යුගයේ සිටම ලංකාවේ හෝමෝ සේපියන්  හෙවත් මිනිසා ජිවත් වූ බවට පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක පර්යේෂණ අනුව පැහැදිලි වේ. මයික්‍රොලිතික අවධියට අයත් වන බලංගොඩ සංස්කෘතිය ලෙසින් අප හඳුන්වනු ලබන සංස්කෘතිය හෝටන් තැන්න , උතුරේ පුනරින්, මාන්කුලම්, දකුණේ මිනිහාගල් කන්ද, ආදී ලෙස ලක්දිව පුරාම පැතිරී තිබුණු බවට පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක සාධක ලැබේ.  ඉහත සඳහන් කළ ස්ථාන වලින් ලැබෙන පුරාවිද්‍යාත්මක අවශේෂයන් ක‍්‍රි.පූ.28000 පමණ සිට ක‍්‍රි.පු.9500 දක්වා කාලයට අයත් වේ. ස්ථිර වශයෙන් නිගමනය කළ නොහැකි නටබුන් හා පුරා ශිලා යුගයට අයත් රළු ආම්පන්න රැසක් ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාවේ නොයෙක් ස්ථාන වලින් හමු වී ඇත.

ක‍්‍රි.පූ 15000 – 10000 කාලයට අයත් වන ලෙස කාල නිර්ණය කර ඇති මෙසොලිතික ( මධ්‍යම ශිලා යුගය ) යුගයට අයත් සාධකද ලක්දිව නොයෙක් ස්ථානයන්ගෙන් ලැබෙන්නේය.

මෙගලතික සංස්කෘතියක නටබුන් ලංකාවේ බොහෝ ස්ථාන වලින් ලැබෙන්නේය. එනම් ක‍්‍රි.පූ. 800 – 100 දක්වා කාලයට අයත් නටබුන්ය. පොම්පරිප්පුව, ගුරු ගල් හින්න, කතිර වේලි, පඩිය ගම්පොල, වළවේ නිම්නය යන ස්ථාන වලින් මේ යුගයට අයත් සාධක ලැබෙන්නේය. මේ අවදිය තුළ සිංහලයන් යකඩ භාවිතය, කළු සහ රතු මැටි බඳුන් භාවිතය, ස්ථාවර ජනාවාස, වාරිමාර්ග සහ කෘෂි කර්මාන්ත ක‍්‍රමවේදයන් දන සිටියහ.
දැනට ලැබෙන පිළිගත්  පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක  සාධක මෙසේ  පිළිගැන්විය හැක-
බූන්දල  (පතිරාජ වෙල) – අදින් අවුරුදු 125,000 කට පෙර හෝමෝ සේපියන් මානව ජනාවාස තිබුණු බවට සාධක
පාහියන්ගල (බලන්ගොඩ) – අදින් වසර 31,000 කට පෙර හෝමෝ සේපියන් මානව ජනාවාස සහ මානව අවශේෂ ( මධ්‍යම ශිලා යුගය )
මෙම බලන්ගොඩ සංස්කෘතිය දළ වශයෙන් අදින් වසර 37,000 – 40,000 කට පෙර කාලයට අයත්ය.
කුරුවිට බටදොඹ ලෙන අදින් වසර 28,000 කට පෙර කාලයට අයත් සාධක  ලැබෙන්නේය.
දැනට ලැබෙන විශ්වසනීය සාධක අනුව ලංකාව පුරා ස්ථාන 108 කින් අදින් වසර 500,000 සිට 5000 දක්වා කාලයකට අයත් විවිධ අවශේෂයන් ලැබෙන්නේය.
තවද ලංකාවෙන් කෘෂි කර්මාන්තය සම්බන්ධයෙන් ලැබෙන පැරණිම පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක සාධකය ලැබෙන්නේ හෝටන් තැන්නෙන්ය. ඒ අදින් වසර 20,000 – 15,000 කට පෙර ඕට්ස් සහ බාර්ලි වගාවන් පිලිබඳ සාධකය.
එසේම අනුරාධපර ඇතුළු නුවර කැණීම් වලින්ද අවම වශයෙන් ක්‍රිග පූග8 වන සියවසට අයත් පැරණි නගරයක නටබුන් ලැබෙන්නේයග යකඩ භාවිතය, අශ්වයින් ඇති කිරීම, වී වගාව, වළං කර්මාන්තය සහිත නාගරික ශිෂ්ටාචාරයක් ඒ වන විටත් පවතී බවට පුරාවිද්‍යාත්මක සාධක ලැබේ.
මුලදී අනුරාධග්‍රාම ලෙස තිබී ක්‍රි. පූ. 8 වන සියවස වන විට නාගරික තත්ත්වකට අනුරාධපුරය සංවර්ධනය වූ බවට සැලකිය හැක.

ලක්දිව මුල් පදිංචි කරුවන් හෙවත් ආදිම වාසින් වන සිංහලයන් ගේ ආරම්භය අදින් වසර එක ලක්ෂ විසි පන්දහසකට එහාට ගමන් කරන බවට පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක සාධක ලැබේ. එතැන් සිට විවිධ වකවානු වලට අයත් මානව අවශේෂ සහ මානවයන් භාවිත කළා යයි සැලකිය හැකි ද්‍රව්‍යමය අවශේෂයන් ලංකාවේ නොයෙක් ස්ථානයන්ගෙන් ලැබෙන්නේය. ආර්ය යන ව්‍යවහාරය කෙසේ වුවත් ක‍්‍රි.පූ. 6, 5 කාලයන්හිදී විදේශයන් සිට විවිධ එෙඬ්ර ජන කොටස් ආසියානු මහද්වීපයේ ඈත දේශයන්හි සිට ලක්දිවට පැමිණි බවට සාධක ලැබෙතත්, ඔවුන් සිංහල ශිෂ්ටාචාර ආරම්භ කරන්නට මුල් වූ බවට විශ්වාස කිරීම කිසිඳු ශාස්ත‍්‍රීය පදනමක් නැති මතයකි. අදින් වසර එක් ලක්ෂ විසි පන්දාහක් එහාට මානව ශිෂ්ටාචාරයක නටබුන් ලක්දිවින් ලැබෙද්දී, අවම වශයෙන් කි‍්‍ර. පූ 8 වන සියවසට අයත් නාගරික ශිෂ්ටාචාරයක අවශේෂ ලැබෙද්දී, සිංහල ශිෂ්ටාචාරයේ ආරම්භය විදේශයෙන් පැමිණි පසු කාලීන ජන කොටස් වලට පැවරීම පදනම් විරහිතය.

© සියලූම හිමිකම් ඇවිරිණි. කතෘගේ ලිඛිත අවසරය නොමැතිව මෙහි සඳහන් කිසිවක් හෝ උපුටා ගැනීම, ගබඩා කර තැබීම, නැවත ප්‍රකාශය, පලකිරීම සපුරා තහනම්ය.

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