Tag Archives: Archaeology

Kiribath Vehera, Anuradhapura

Kiribath vehera is an archaeological site situated in Anuradhapura, the once glorious capital city of Sri Lanka.

Situated in the far North of the Ancient city, out of the citadel, Kiribath vehera is in a sad state. To reach the site, one must pass the sacred city, traveling towards the North, taking the Sangamitta road, and pass the ruins at Wijayarama.

Kiribath vehera literally means the ‘Milk rice monastery’. It is not understandable how it got this name. This can be identified as the ancient ‘Uttara Megha-giri viharaya’ mentioned in old scripts and inscriptions. When translated, Uttara Megha-giri vehera gives the meaning, ‘Northern Rain-cloud hill temple’. One pillar inscription found at this place mentions the name, ‘Uthur Megiri watthata’. This pillar inscription can be dated to the 9th or 10th century.

What could be seen here are remains of an ancient Buddhist monastery, including an image house and a stupa. Ruins of the image house are located in front of the ruined stupa.

The ruined stupa is covered with vegetation and hardly can be identified as a stupa. The bricks are spread all over and the top of the stupa there was a large pit dug by robbers when I first visited the site in 2009. The damage caused by robbers and negligence cannot be considered as minor.

As the stupa is collapsed and covered with trees and shrubs, it is difficult to understand its original shape. The stupa can be roughly measured as 30 feet in height and 400 feet in diameter.

The pillars and the brick foundation in front of the stupa can be identified as an image house. However, though smaller in size this demonstrations similarities with the Jethawana image house. The scattered parts of a stone figure can be recognized as a Buddha image.

At present, a positive change cannot be seen as still the site is in a depressed state. Bricks, scattered stones and broken pillars can be seen everywhere. If not conserved soon, the ruins will be destroyed further.

Based on the pillar inscription the place can be identified as the ancient Uttara Megiri wattha monastery or the Uttara Megha-giri viharya.

Ancient scripts records that Princess Hemamala and Prince Dantha first visited the Dakunu Megha-giri monastery kept the tooth relic at the temple and sent a messenger to the king. Once receiving the message, the king arrived at the temple and received the tooth relic with royal honour. The couple stopped from entering the citadel or meeting the monarch as soon as they arrived, thus they stayed at the Dakunu Megha-giri monastery and a monk enlightened the monarch with the good news. The Dakunu Megha-giri monastery can be identified as the present day ‘Isuru-muniya monastery’. Scholars assume the ‘Dakunu Megha-giri monastery’ where the couple kept the tooth relic for the first time should be this ‘Uttara Megha-giri vehera’ considering the geographical locations. The Dakunu Megha-giri monastery should surely be located in the Southern part of the capital, which means one must pass the citadel where the most important and secured buildings are located. The ancient main road to Anuradhapura, from North, was across the Malwathu oya. If one takes this road, the citadel must be crossed before reaching the Dakunu Megha-giri monastery. However, the Uttara Megha-giri vehera can be reached easily without crossing the citadel and other important buildings, as it is located out of the boundaries of the most important area of the ancient capital. As the couple landed at a port somewhere in the North, they must have taken this ancient main road to reach Anuradhapura. Furthermore, the royal couple was new to the country and they were escaping the unsafe political situation in their own country, the Kalinga. Considering these reasons, the royal couple must have not chosen to cross the citadel of a kingdom where they are alien to.

© සියලූම හිමිකම් ඇවිරිණි. කතෘගේ ලිඛිත අවසරය නොමැතිව මෙහි සඳහන් කිසිවක් හෝ උපුටා ගැනීම,ගබඩා කර තැබීමනැවත ප්රකාශයපලකිරීම සපුරා තහනම්ය.

Copyright © All Rights Reserved. The words, ideas and images are the intellectual property of Ama H. Vanniarachchy. All work published (words and images) here is copyrighted. If you wish to reproduce the work published here, please inform the writer, to get her written permission and acknowledge this site as the source.

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Dakkina stupa, Anuradhapura

A stupa to commemorate a warrior king 

Dakknia stupa or Dakunu dagaba is located in Anuradhapura, the ancient capital of Sri Lanka. Anuradhapura, the longest surviving capital of the Sinhalese is one of the greatest cities of the ancient world.

Location – Dakkina stupa is one of the earliest Buddhist stupas, located in the southern part of the ancient capital Anuradhapura, out of the citadel, close to the Thissa wewa.

Name – The name ‘Dakkina stupa’ means the Southern stupa.  Other names for this stupa are Dakshina stupa or Dakunu dagaba, which means the ‘Southern dagaba’.

Present situation / remains – At present, what we can see is a ruined brick structure of the ancient stupa. The stupa’s basal rings and dome have survived but not the upper part. There are remains of the ayakas and some stone pillars with carvings. The floor is paved with stone slabs.

History – The stupa once belonged to the Dakkina vehera or the Dakkina monastery, which was built by Utthiya, a minister of King Watta Gamini Abhaya, during the 1st century BC. The name of the stupa and monastery is identified as Dakkina vehera as it is mentioned in a stone inscription, found in 1948 by Prof.Paranavithana. As the stone inscription clearly mentions, the stupa can be identified without any confusions as the Dakkina vehera and stupa. Mahavamsa records that king Watta Gamini Abyaya’s minister Uttiya built a vehera named Dakkina. In the above-mentioned stone inscription, it refers to a king of the name ‘Pitha Maha raja’, which is another name of King Watta Gamini Abhaya.

Later kings extended the Dakkina monastery during times to come. King Kanitta Thissa built a ‘daana shala’ (alms hall), and expanded its boundaries. In addition, this king has built a ‘kanchuka’ for the stupa. He extended the monastery land and cleared a new pathway leading to the stupa. King Voharika Thissa constructed the ‘prakara’ or the wall of the monastery.

There were buildings attached to the ancient monastery such as the ‘Upostha gharaya’, ‘Sanghawasa’ and ‘ Daana shala’ which are not yet identified.

Stupa to commemorate a warrior king – Prof.Paranavithana claims this stupa was built in the place where the heroic Sinhalese king Dutta Gamini Abhaya was cremated, giving evidences of ashes being discovered after excavating the stupa. After scientifically examining the ashes, he exposed that they are human bone ashes and belongs to the period of Dutta Gamini Abhaya, concluding them as the ashes of the warrior king. It is obvious that the ancient Sinhalese built a stupa housing his ashes to commemorate Dutta Gamini Abhaya, for he is considered as one of the greatest rulers of the island.

The notable archaeological features are the remains of ayakas with beautiful carvings. One stone pillar has a carving of a ‘Kalpa wruksha’, which is one fine piece of stonework. Another figure can be identified as ‘Kuwera’, the god of wealth.



Plate 1 – Remains of the Nothern Aayaka. Another beautiful stonework at Dakkina stupa location. This is a carving of the ‘Kalpa wruksha’. A seated figure holds a pot on his head and the kalpa wruksha comes out of the pot. This symbolizes wealth and prospers.

Plate 2, 3 , 4, & 5 –The basal rings and the dome of Dakkina stupa. The stupa is built in bricks. The upper part of the stupa cannot be seen making it hard to understand the shape of the original shape.

Plate 6 – Remains of the Northern Aayaka. This carving is identified as Kuwera, the god of wealth, also the guardian god of the Northern quarter of the universe. Harsh environmental conditions and time has caused enough damage to this beautiful stonework. Cracks can be seen all over the figure and the details of the face are not clear.

There is a second figure beneath the main figure. He is kneeling down and spreading coins on the ground. This helps us to identify the standing figure as Kuwera.

If not protected, we might lose this beautiful stonework in near future.

Plate 7 – The three basal rings cab be seen clearly.


Stone pillar at Dakkina stupa

Dakkina stupa base and dome

Dakkina stupa

Dakkina stupa dome

Dakkina stupa

Dakkina stupa

Dakknia stupa

The Stupa

Kuwera carving

Carving at Dakkina stupa

Basal rings

Dakkina stupa, basal rings.

© සියලූම හිමිකම් ඇවිරිණි. කතෘගේ ලිඛිත අවසරය නොමැතිව මෙහි සඳහන් කිසිවක් හෝ උපුටා ගැනීම,ගබඩා කර තැබීම, නැවත ප්‍රකාශය, පලකිරීම සපුරා තහනම්ය.

Copyright © All Rights Reserved. The words, ideas and images are the intellectual property of Ama H. Vanniarachchy. All work published (words and images) here is copyrighted. If you wish to reproduce the work published here, please inform the writer, to get her written permission and acknowledge this site as the source.

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Trails of a vanishing nation, the Sinhalese.

The Sinhalese are the first to inhabit the fertile lands of Lanka. Archaeological evidences comes in great aid when researching the earliest history of Sri Lanka and this article will present some of the significant archaeological findings to recognize the earliest footsteps of the Sinhalese.

The history of the oldest known human settlement of Sri Lanka dates back to 125,000 years from the present. There is a lacking of literature sources or inscriptional records which belongs to this period. Unfortunately most of the literature sources are mixed up with folklore and mythological tales, covering historical facts, making it difficult to see the truth. The earliest history of the Sinhalese are written as fables which are hard to believe, most of them written with the influence of Hindu mythology. Adding into this mess is countless wrong misinterpretations of the colonial period historians of Sri Lanka during the 19th and 20th centuries. These misinterpretations of the early history of the Sinhalese have been now absorbed by the majority of citizens, as a result of them being printed in school text books. The damage is enormous. Examples of such are the myth of Vijaya being the first Sinhalese king, Sinhalese are decedents of a foreign gangster named Vijaya, who was exiled from his own country, fable of Ravana, non-humans such as Yakshas, Nagas inhabiting the land of Lanka before the arrival of Vijaya etc.

There was an established civilization already existing in Sri Lanka when the Aryan groups started to migrate during the 6th century BC. Aryan migrations occurred far before the 6th century BC. The Sinhalese inhabitants of Sri Lanka had developed an agricultural culture by the 6th century BC. Archaeological evidences proves this. So it is time to give up the idea that ‘Vijaya’ landed with his men and ‘taught’ the Sinhalese about ‘culture’ and ‘civilization’. There are enough evidences to say that Homo sapiens walked on this land since the Palaeolithic period. The Balangoda culture, which is the Microlithic period of Sri Lanka was spread in the Horton plains, Punarin (Northern part of the island), and Mankulam, Miniha gal kanda. There are remains of the Microlithic period found in these sites, which are dated as 28,000 BC to the 9500 BC. Many artefacts have been discovered from Sri Lanka that have identified as belonging to the Palaeolithic period.

Artefacts belonging to the Mesolithic period have been discovered in various locations of Sri Lanka, and they can be dated as belonging to the period of 15000 BC to 10000 BC.

A Megalithic culture (800 BC- 100BC) was spread in almost all over the island. Some of the sites are Pomparippuwa, Guru gal hinna, Kathira weli, Padiyagampola, and the banks of river Walawe. During this period the Sinhalese produced and used iron, red and black ware, established settlements, irrigation and agriculture.

Archaeological evidences in a chronological order
Bundala (Pathiraja wela) – 125,000 years BP human settlements

Pahiyangala (Balangoda) – 31,000 years BP Homo sapiens settlements and human remains (Mesolithic period)

Kuruwita Batadombalena (a cave site) – 28,000 years BP

108 sites identified in Sri Lanka with evidence of a human settlement as old as 500,000 years BP to 5000 years BP.

The oldest known evidence of agriculture in Sri Lanka was found in the Horton plains, which is 20,000 years BP to 15,000 years BP. Evidences of Oats and Barley are found here.
Anuradhapura Salgahawaththa excavations revealed that from the 8th century BC there was an urban civilization in Anuradhapura, with its inhabitants using iron, domestication of horses, paddy cultivation and producing pottery. These are characteristics of early urban civilizations.
It is clear that the earliest inhabitants of Sri Lanka who are the Sinhalese, has a history which is 125,000 years of antiquity. It is a fact that the Aryans migrated from the northern or central Asian plains all over the Asia and then to Sri Lanka too. By the time they arrived, Sri Lanka was a land with a civilized human civilization, it’s inhabitants used to cultivate their own food, who knew agriculture, irrigation methods, produced and used iron and pottery, had their own burial rituals and beliefs of an afterlife, organized burial grounds, domesticated horses, and even produced beautiful bead jewellery. It is baseless to hand over the responsibility of urbanization of Sri Lanka to some foreign migrators by ignoring such clear archaeological evidences. By the time of Aryans migrated, Anuradhapura, the pride of the Sinhalese, had already upgraded into a state of an urban centre.

© සියලූම හිමිකම් ඇවිරිණි. කතෘගේ ලිඛිත අවසරය නොමැතිව මෙහි සඳහන් කිසිවක් හෝ උපුටා ගැනීම, ගබඩා කර තැබීම, නැවත ප්‍රකාශය, පලකිරීම සපුරා තහනම්ය.

Copyright © All Rights Reserved. The words, ideas and images are the intellectual property of Ama H. Vanniarachchy. All work published (words and images) here is copyrighted. If you wish to reproduce the work published here, please inform the writer, to get her written permission and acknowledge this site as the source.

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Kotte : Living Among Ruins

Kotte is an ancient city with a heritage older than five centuries. Among the busy streets and tall buildings hidden is a legacy of forgotten heroes and glorious victories of a nation.

Kotte was once the capital of Sri Lanka, a fortress built by Alakeshwara, the warrior. It was a fortress with high security built using latest available technology and fortress building methods. It had strong  ramparts, gates, moats, warehouses, secret pathways and a well-organized complex of tunnels, spy services, armours and barracks, garrisons, gigantic tuskers and elephants, horses, chariot and cavalry  and an army who guarded the city day and night. Inside the city, paved paths were beautified with plants, trees and ponds. Resting places were built besides the roads. The royal palace and the temple of the tooth relic was the pride of the city.

This once glorious city is now in ruins and almost hidden beneath the modern town of Kotte among busy streets, cramped buildings and the buzz of a busy town life.

I am fortunate to be born and live among a city with such a glorious past. I grew up listening to stories of the great warrior, Veediya bandara and Prince Sapumal. I could hear the whispers of Kotte’s forgotten heroes. As a child I wondered where could have been the tunnels explained in old books, where was the beautiful royal palace and those beautiful paths, those ponds with goldfish in them. Where did they all vanish? Why did Kotte die with time, and fade away from our memories? Driven by the love I had for Kotte, I started my first research on Kotte’s lost heritage at university as a scholar in Archaeology.

Today I am pleased to be a part of Kotte Heritage Foundation (KHF) where we take action towards its protection and conservation.

Not only as citizens but also as scholars of archaeology and history I believe it is our utmost duty and responsibility to protect this heritage from further destruction. We, Kotte Heritage Foundation (KHF) is to save this once glorious city with the involvement of the public.

Please join hands with us and be a proud citizen of Kotte’s living heritage.

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ආදීම සිංහලයන්ගේ පිය සටහන් සොයා…

ලක්දිව මුල්ම ජනාවස පිහිටුවනු ලබන්නේ සිංහලයන්ය. සිංහලයන්ගේ ආදිතමයන්ගේ පිය සටහන් සොයා යන ගමනේදී අපට පිටිවහලක් වන විවධ මුලාශ්‍රයන් අතරින් පුරා විද්‍යා මුලාශ්‍ර ප්‍රධාන තැනක් ගනී. මෙම ලිපියෙන් පිළිගත හැකි ප්‍රධාන පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක සාධක කිහිපයක් ගැන පමණක් සාකච්ඡා කෙරේ.

දැනට ලැබෙන පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක සාධක අනුව අදින් වසර එක් ලක්ෂ විසිපන්දාහක් තරම් ඈතකට මෙරට ජනාවාසකරණ ඉතිහාසය දිව යන්නේය. මෙම යුගය  පිළිබඳව හැදෑරීමේදී අප මුහුණ දෙන ප‍්‍රධාන ගැටළුවක් වන්නේ සාහිත්‍යය මුලාශ‍්‍ර හිඟ කමත්, පසු කාලීන සාහිත්‍ය මුලාශ‍්‍ර වැරදි තොරතුරු වාර්තා කිරීමත්, 19 සහ 20 යන සියවස් වල පර්යේෂකයන් බොහෝ සෙයින් වැරදි මිත්‍යාවන්  සිංහලයේ ආරම්භය පිළිබඳව පැතිරිමත්ය. උදාහරණ  ලෙස, ආර්යයන් ජනාවාස පිහිටුවීම, විජය මිත්‍යාව , රාවණ මිත්‍යාව, විජයට පෙර මෙරට යක්ෂ, නාග වැනි අමනුෂ්‍යයන් සිටීම ආදිය සැලකිය හැක.

ඉන්දු – යුරෝපීය ප‍්‍රාකෘත බසක් කතා කරන ක‍්‍රි.පූ.6 වැනි සියවසේ සිට පසුවට මෙරටට සංක‍්‍රමණය වූ ආර්ය ජන කොටස් එන විටත් ලක්දිව නිජ බිම කරගත් සිංහලයන් වසර දහස් ගණනක්  පරිණත ශිෂ්ටාචාරයක් ලක්දිව පුරා ගොඩනංවා තිබුණි.
විජය සහ පිරිස මෙරටට පැමිණි මුල් මනුෂ්‍ය සමූහය ලෙස දැක්වීම අපහසුය. පුරා ශිලා යුගයේ සිටම ලංකාවේ හෝමෝ සේපියන්  හෙවත් මිනිසා ජිවත් වූ බවට පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක පර්යේෂණ අනුව පැහැදිලි වේ. මයික්‍රොලිතික අවධියට අයත් වන බලංගොඩ සංස්කෘතිය ලෙසින් අප හඳුන්වනු ලබන සංස්කෘතිය හෝටන් තැන්න , උතුරේ පුනරින්, මාන්කුලම්, දකුණේ මිනිහාගල් කන්ද, ආදී ලෙස ලක්දිව පුරාම පැතිරී තිබුණු බවට පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක සාධක ලැබේ.  ඉහත සඳහන් කළ ස්ථාන වලින් ලැබෙන පුරාවිද්‍යාත්මක අවශේෂයන් ක‍්‍රි.පූ.28000 පමණ සිට ක‍්‍රි.පු.9500 දක්වා කාලයට අයත් වේ. ස්ථිර වශයෙන් නිගමනය කළ නොහැකි නටබුන් හා පුරා ශිලා යුගයට අයත් රළු ආම්පන්න රැසක් ශ‍්‍රී ලංකාවේ නොයෙක් ස්ථාන වලින් හමු වී ඇත.

ක‍්‍රි.පූ 15000 – 10000 කාලයට අයත් වන ලෙස කාල නිර්ණය කර ඇති මෙසොලිතික ( මධ්‍යම ශිලා යුගය ) යුගයට අයත් සාධකද ලක්දිව නොයෙක් ස්ථානයන්ගෙන් ලැබෙන්නේය.

මෙගලතික සංස්කෘතියක නටබුන් ලංකාවේ බොහෝ ස්ථාන වලින් ලැබෙන්නේය. එනම් ක‍්‍රි.පූ. 800 – 100 දක්වා කාලයට අයත් නටබුන්ය. පොම්පරිප්පුව, ගුරු ගල් හින්න, කතිර වේලි, පඩිය ගම්පොල, වළවේ නිම්නය යන ස්ථාන වලින් මේ යුගයට අයත් සාධක ලැබෙන්නේය. මේ අවදිය තුළ සිංහලයන් යකඩ භාවිතය, කළු සහ රතු මැටි බඳුන් භාවිතය, ස්ථාවර ජනාවාස, වාරිමාර්ග සහ කෘෂි කර්මාන්ත ක‍්‍රමවේදයන් දන සිටියහ.
දැනට ලැබෙන පිළිගත්  පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක  සාධක මෙසේ  පිළිගැන්විය හැක-
බූන්දල  (පතිරාජ වෙල) – අදින් අවුරුදු 125,000 කට පෙර හෝමෝ සේපියන් මානව ජනාවාස තිබුණු බවට සාධක
පාහියන්ගල (බලන්ගොඩ) – අදින් වසර 31,000 කට පෙර හෝමෝ සේපියන් මානව ජනාවාස සහ මානව අවශේෂ ( මධ්‍යම ශිලා යුගය )
මෙම බලන්ගොඩ සංස්කෘතිය දළ වශයෙන් අදින් වසර 37,000 – 40,000 කට පෙර කාලයට අයත්ය.
කුරුවිට බටදොඹ ලෙන අදින් වසර 28,000 කට පෙර කාලයට අයත් සාධක  ලැබෙන්නේය.
දැනට ලැබෙන විශ්වසනීය සාධක අනුව ලංකාව පුරා ස්ථාන 108 කින් අදින් වසර 500,000 සිට 5000 දක්වා කාලයකට අයත් විවිධ අවශේෂයන් ලැබෙන්නේය.
තවද ලංකාවෙන් කෘෂි කර්මාන්තය සම්බන්ධයෙන් ලැබෙන පැරණිම පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක සාධකය ලැබෙන්නේ හෝටන් තැන්නෙන්ය. ඒ අදින් වසර 20,000 – 15,000 කට පෙර ඕට්ස් සහ බාර්ලි වගාවන් පිලිබඳ සාධකය.
එසේම අනුරාධපර ඇතුළු නුවර කැණීම් වලින්ද අවම වශයෙන් ක්‍රිග පූග8 වන සියවසට අයත් පැරණි නගරයක නටබුන් ලැබෙන්නේයග යකඩ භාවිතය, අශ්වයින් ඇති කිරීම, වී වගාව, වළං කර්මාන්තය සහිත නාගරික ශිෂ්ටාචාරයක් ඒ වන විටත් පවතී බවට පුරාවිද්‍යාත්මක සාධක ලැබේ.
මුලදී අනුරාධග්‍රාම ලෙස තිබී ක්‍රි. පූ. 8 වන සියවස වන විට නාගරික තත්ත්වකට අනුරාධපුරය සංවර්ධනය වූ බවට සැලකිය හැක.

ලක්දිව මුල් පදිංචි කරුවන් හෙවත් ආදිම වාසින් වන සිංහලයන් ගේ ආරම්භය අදින් වසර එක ලක්ෂ විසි පන්දහසකට එහාට ගමන් කරන බවට පුරා විද්‍යාත්මක සාධක ලැබේ. එතැන් සිට විවිධ වකවානු වලට අයත් මානව අවශේෂ සහ මානවයන් භාවිත කළා යයි සැලකිය හැකි ද්‍රව්‍යමය අවශේෂයන් ලංකාවේ නොයෙක් ස්ථානයන්ගෙන් ලැබෙන්නේය. ආර්ය යන ව්‍යවහාරය කෙසේ වුවත් ක‍්‍රි.පූ. 6, 5 කාලයන්හිදී විදේශයන් සිට විවිධ එෙඬ්ර ජන කොටස් ආසියානු මහද්වීපයේ ඈත දේශයන්හි සිට ලක්දිවට පැමිණි බවට සාධක ලැබෙතත්, ඔවුන් සිංහල ශිෂ්ටාචාර ආරම්භ කරන්නට මුල් වූ බවට විශ්වාස කිරීම කිසිඳු ශාස්ත‍්‍රීය පදනමක් නැති මතයකි. අදින් වසර එක් ලක්ෂ විසි පන්දාහක් එහාට මානව ශිෂ්ටාචාරයක නටබුන් ලක්දිවින් ලැබෙද්දී, අවම වශයෙන් කි‍්‍ර. පූ 8 වන සියවසට අයත් නාගරික ශිෂ්ටාචාරයක අවශේෂ ලැබෙද්දී, සිංහල ශිෂ්ටාචාරයේ ආරම්භය විදේශයෙන් පැමිණි පසු කාලීන ජන කොටස් වලට පැවරීම පදනම් විරහිතය.

© සියලූම හිමිකම් ඇවිරිණි. කතෘගේ ලිඛිත අවසරය නොමැතිව මෙහි සඳහන් කිසිවක් හෝ උපුටා ගැනීම, ගබඩා කර තැබීම, නැවත ප්‍රකාශය, පලකිරීම සපුරා තහනම්ය.

Copyright © All Rights Reserved. The words, ideas and images are the intellectual property of Ama H. Vanniarachchy. All work published (words and images) here is copyrighted. If you wish to reproduce the work published here, please inform the writer, to get her written permission and acknowledge this site as the source.

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My first book released by Godage International Publishers, titled “Origin and Evolution of the Domestic Dog” discusses the long time process of the domestication of the Domestic Dog.

My first book released by Godage International Publishers, titled “Origin and Evolution of the Domestic Dog” discusses the long time process of the domestication of the Domestic Dog.

The Domestic Dog, Scientifically called as the Canis lupus familiaris, is one of the oldest animals to be domesticated. There are arguments between scholars about the oldest animal domesticated and some believe it was the Cow, while others believe it was the Dog. This will remain a controversy in the world of Archaeology and Natural Sciences until we gather clear evidences to conclude for sure.

The aim of this study is to research the origin and evolution of the Domestic Dog. The process of Domestication, Animal Domestication, and the domestication of the Canis lupus familiaris and the human involvement are discussed in this article. Information about the Family tree, Ancestral species of the modern domestic dog, living members of the Canine Family such as the Grey/Timber wolf, Jackal, Coyote, Dingo, New Guinea’s Singing Dog, as well as extinct members of the Canine Family such as the Miacid, Cynodictus and Tomactus are presented here in this article.  In which ways the members of the Canine family have being depicted in ancient cultures and believes are another aspect we have researched on.

The modern Domestic Dog is scientifically referred as Canis lupus familiaris.

The companionship between dog and man dates back to the period when man was living his life as a hunter. In fact, they were the ancestors of the Modern Domestic Dog who befriended the pre historic man for the first time. The Grey Wolf or the Timber Wolf and scientifically referred as the Canis Lupus. Rapid changes occurred during this time in human lives. They were ending their lives as hunter-gatherers and beginning a new way of life style. It was the dawn of civilization, the beginning of stable human settlements.  During this time, wild dogs and wolves were attracted towards human settlements in search of warmth and food more than the earlier times. 

The modern Dog is a result of the continuous process of domestication of the Wolf. The Grey Wolf or the Timber Wolf is the largest wild member of the Canidae family and a survivor of the Canidae family who exists from the glaciered period until now. As many scholars/scientists believe, Gray/Timber Wolf is the ancestor of the Modern Dog and many of the modern species of the Dog family. Recently the modern Dog was categorized as a domesticated subspecies of the Grey/timber Wolf. The domestication of wolves original occurred during the late Pleistocene, 13500 years ago. The beginning of the process was not a intended or planned. It was spontaneous and impulsive. This may have been an outcome of some other human or natural performances. As scholars believe, the begging was when garbage used to scatter around pre historic human settlements and wolves that were natural scavengers, were attracted towards them. (One significant reason for wolves to be the first species to be domesticated was that they were natural scavengers. They depend on garbage and left over food. This has given wolves/ dogs and other members of the dog family to survive throughout the hardest situations of history. ) According to DNA evidence it is clear that the ancestral wolf of the modern dog were separated from the other wild wolves nearly about 100000 years ago. The modern dog was evolved from those wolves nearly 15000 years ago. According to these dating, and if they are accurate, dog is the first ever species t be domesticated by man. There are archaeological evidences of the domestication of the dog dating back to 12000-10000 BC. Very clear evidences date back to 7000 BC.


Birth of a new species…


Many causes strained to develop a new sub species, which was a result of the long-term domestication process. Some considerable causes are the attraction of wolves towards human settlements in search of garbage and leftover food, warmth. Our ancestors who were then hunter-gathers used to bring home and nurture orphaned wolf cubs whom they met in the forest. They were perfect hunting companions, guards, and helpers to transport heavy loads.  As wolves were facing such situations, physical and behavioral changes appeared in later generations of wolves. Because of this, a new generation of wolves with changes required by human was born as a sub species of the wolf. These mutant creatures of wolves are what we today call as the Domestic DOG. As researches believe the Dog is a completely Domesticated species.


Because of these changes many dog breeds were evolved too. There are hundreds of such various breeds in the world. These dogs were selectively bred to meet different needs of man. Among such breeds, the Saluki is considered as the most ancient dog breed in the world.  Some other ancient dog breeds are Ibizian Hound, Grey Hound, Pharaoh hound, and Samoyed.


At present Dogs are used to multi-tasks apart from Hunters, Guards and Loving pets. They are used to help shepherds, as sledge dogs in snow covered areas, to rescue people during disasters and catastrophic situations, as messengers, to track down criminals and drugs and weapons, helpers of the disables are to name a few. Apart from all these, dogs have always been man’s best friend since the last glacial period until now and will remain the same for thousands of years to come.


Dogs of Sri Lanka.


In ancient Sinhalese folklore, Jackal plays a prominent role. Till now there are no solid and clear evidence to state that wolves existed in Sri Lanka. The Jackal who exists in Sri Lanka is referred as the Golden Jackal.  There are many Jackal species in the world but the Golden Jackal is the only Jackal species can be found in Sri Lanka. Scientifically the Golden Jackal is referred as the Canis aureus. According to Genetic research this species of Jackal (Golden Jackal- Canis aureus) does not show close relation to the rest of other Jackal species.  Researchers include the Canis aureus to the wolf group as they close relation to the wolf group. The other species belongs to the wolf group is, Grey/Timber wolf, Domestic Dog and Coyote.

 © සියලූම හිමිකම් ඇවිරිණි. කතෘගේ ලිඛිත අවසරය නොමැතිව මෙහි සඳහන් කිසිවක් හෝ උපුටා ගැනීම, ගබඩා කර තැබීම, නැවත ප්‍රකාශය, පලකිරීම සපුරා තහනම්ය.

Copyright © All Rights Reserved. The words, ideas and images are the intellectual property of Ama H. Vanniarachchy. All work published (words and images) here is copyrighted. If you wish to reproduce the work published here, please inform the writer, to get her written permission and acknowledge this site as the source.

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